군산출장안마┶24시출장샵╅군산강릉 마사지〔군산안마방 잠〕╰【군산속초 마사지】♘군산모텔 아가씨◤군산안마방 몰 카┽군산아주대 안마방◐군산제천 마사지的군산군포 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

진주출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

군산출장안마ム24시출장샵¤군산강릉 마사지〔군산조건 만남 카페〕↧【군산인계동 안마방】☭군산구로 안마방リ군산딥티슈 마사지κ군산안마방 할머니♠군산국 안마방♜군산모란 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 오산부산 사상 출장 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

군산출장안마τ예약금없는출장샵♛군산강릉 마사지〔군산경마 시간〕◁【군산중국 마사지】↶군산페니스 마사지⇗군산안마방 코스➻군산안마방 무한ヘ군산눈 마사지 기계☴군산춘천 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

군산출장안마ⓞ예약ν군산강릉 마사지〔군산괌 마사지〕➢【군산마사지 하드】█군산연수동 안마방▬군산전주 모텔 가격♩군산마사지 물╓군산상봉동 안마방✓군산성인 안마방

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 부산출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

군산출장안마○예약╥군산강릉 마사지〔군산상주 안마방〕▬【군산실제 일본 안마방】↥군산맹인 마사지☞군산전립선 마사지 기구↲군산출장업계위▨군산세r시 마사지⇐군산안마방 시간제

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 마산중랑구 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

군산출장안마┌예약금없는출장샵┚군산강릉 마사지〔군산여자 모텔〕セ【군산레즈 마사지】♧군산주안 모텔 추천╨군산코 높아지는 마사지⇆군산손가락 마사지◙군산군포 마사지⇜군산라페스타 안마방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 진주출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

군산출장안마군산사상 안마방

  • 밀양삼산동 안마방
  • 군산정자 안마방
  • 군산출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    군산출장안마├예약금없는출장샵⇘군산강릉 마사지〔군산안마방 스킬〕╬【군산사상 안마방】◆군산구로 안마방⇜군산신림 모텔♕군산음경 마사지☎군산대전복합터미널 마사지↺군산안마방 번호

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 정선안마방 중독 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, jasonboy.xyz . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    군산출장안마
    남원새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트 전주출장샵 대구안마방 파워배드
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 서울출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    군산출장안마♧24시출장샵↰군산강릉 마사지〔군산화성 마사지〕┚【군산아가씨 출장】☪군산마산 마사지◦군산턱근육 마사지☣군산보령 마사지⇤군산연산동 마사지☛군산서울샵

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 춘천턱관절 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    군산출장안마╒출장부르는법┥군산강릉 마사지〔군산양곡 안마방〕┛【군산천안 안마방 후기】✯군산잇몸 마사지╎군산안마방 건마✥군산심장 마사지╣군산평택 여관♜군산출장 타이마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 대전출장샵 .

    대전부산 모텔 아가씨
    상주사당역 안마방 광주출장안마 제주안마방 에이스
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    군산출장안마╚24시출장샵キ군산강릉 마사지〔군산출장서비스〕☎【군산흉부 마사지】➻군산안마방 오피┎군산대산 마사지♐군산대천 안마방♤군산영종도 마사지ル군산마사지 샵

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    군산출장안마☁24시출장샵¤군산강릉 마사지〔군산부산 출장 서비스〕☻【군산영일대 마사지】♨군산종로 마사지↺군산안와상융기 마사지→군산fc 마사지◦군산김원중 안마방♂군산척추 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 부산출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 울산서울역 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    군산출장안마↢출장부르는법⇌군산강릉 마사지〔군산호치민 안마방〕↣【군산구의동 안마방】↩군산니시미야 코노미 마사지♨군산베이징 안마방⇂군산몰카 안마방♘군산안마방 영어┲군산김해 장유 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    군산출장안마✿출장부르는법1군산강릉 마사지〔군산중국식 마사지〕♙【군산정자역 안마방】↪군산도쿄 안마방⇞군산강남 전립선 마사지┷군산대만 안마방┎군산서산 마사지┐군산동탄 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 군산초대남 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 온라인카지노 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 상주강남 안마방 가격 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    군산출장안마♪ 24시출장샵テ군산강릉 마사지〔군산fc2 한국 마사지〕┾【군산구리 안마방】ア군산논현 안마방♨군산국노 torrent┫군산여관 아가씨✲군산포승 마사지♀군산장 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 울산출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대구출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 진주출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    군산출장안마√출장부르는법➳군산강릉 마사지〔군산해수욕장 마사지 토렌트〕▐【군산안마방 단발】┗군산마사지 남친☏군산안마방 후기↩군산양구 안마방➽군산체코 마사지 fc2☠군산용암동 모텔

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    진안유부녀 마사지
    온라인카지노 구례타이 마사지 썰 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    군산출장안마☴출장부르는법╁군산강릉 마사지〔군산출장〕▷【군산타이 마사지 퇴폐】♗군산강남구청 안마방◑군산타이마사지 팁 서비스γ군산울산 안마방 추천↠군산태백 마사지➻군산섹스 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.군산출장안마군산춘천 모텔 가격⇛군산태국 출장 마사지♗【군산광명 마사지】군산마사지 물✔군산마사지 포르노╨군산아프리카tv 마사지☀군산정관 마사지▶카지노사이트출장부르는법군산안마방 여자╄군산안마방 여자친구▦『군산출장샵』군산일산 안마방⇎군산안마방 출근부ツ군산길동 안마방√군산백마 안마방♥군산출장안마군산대구 타이 마사지군산시흥 안마방◊군산인천안마☄(군산강서 마사지)군산진주 마사지•군산대구 안마방✂군산시흥 안마방▐군산부산대 안마방▤군산한국야동 안마방✍군산오일 마사지 av♞〈군산전립선 마사지 tumblr〉군산대만 안마방╪군산구미 봉곡동 마사지╊군산동서울 안마방▨군산스포츠마사지 자격증╠ 군산출장 마사지﹃군산성인마사지▷「군산서울대입구 안마방」군산출장오쓰피걸✏군산단발 안마방⇢군산아주대 안마방♀군산아로마 마사지 부작용↺군산판교 마사지◥군산전주 마사지 클럽┷﹝군산여관 아가씨﹞군산fc2 한국 마사지➼군산팔 마사지ヤ군산tumblr 안마방☼군산안마방 아영이╋예약영동마사지 크림예약군산코스프레 안마방£군산타이마사지 팁 서비스┰﹛군산중국 안마방﹜군산동래 안마방┺군산햄스터 마사지➼군산부천 마사지☀군산전립선 마사지 tumblr❤군산출장안마군산출장안마서울출장샵군산태국마사지 가격군산안마방 하드군산서양 마사지 야동군산콜걸추천군산출장안마군산구월동 안마방┛군산답십리 마사지⇎《군산이동국 안마방》군산마사지 받다가♜군산용산구 안마방┛군산마사지 정보☼군산둔산동 엘 마사지♪동해수원 태국 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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